Monday, November 16, 2009 Labels: Program PLC training 3 comments
Timers and counters are indispensable in PLC programming. Industry has to number its products, determine a needed action in time, etc. Timing functions is very important, and cycle periods are critical in many processes.
There are two types of timers delay-off and delay-on. First is late with turn off and the other runs late in turning on in relation to a signal that activated timers. Example of a delay-off timer would be staircase lighting. Following its activation, it simply turns off after few minutes.
Each timer has a time basis, or more precisely has several timer basis. Typical values are: 1 second, 0.1 second, and 0,01 second. If programmer has entered .1 as time basis and 50 as a number for delay increase, timer will have a delay of 5 seconds (50 x 0.1 second = 5 seconds).
Timers also have to have value SV set in advance. Value set in advance or ahead of time is a number of increments that timer has to calculate before it changes the output status. Values set in advance can be constants or variables. If a variable is used, timer will use a real time value of the variable to determine a delay. This enables delays to vary depending on the conditions during function. Example is a system that has produced two different products, each requiring different timing during process itself. Product A requires a period of 10 seconds, so number 10 would be assigned to the variable. When product B appears, a variable can change value to what is required by product B.
Typically, timers have two inputs. First is timer enable, or conditional input (when this input is activated, timer will start counting). Second input is a reset input. This input has to be in OFF status in order for a timer to be active, or the whole function would be repeated over again. Some PLC models require this input to be low for a timer to be active, other makers require high status (all of them function in the same way basically). However, if reset line changes status, timer erases accumulated value. It can measure from 0 to 999.9 seconds with precision of 0.1 seconds more or less.
author: Nebojsa Matic
Labels: Basic 1 comments
Connecting external devices to a PLC controller regardless whether they are input or output is a special subject matter for industry. If it stands alone, PLC controller itself is nothing. In order to function it needs sensors to obtain information from environment, and it also needs execution devices so it could turn the programmed change into a reality. Similar concept is seen in how human being functions. Having a brain is simply not enough. Humans achieve full activity only with processing of information from a sensor (eyes, ears, touch, smell) and by taking action through hands, legs or some tools. Unlike human being who receives his sensors automatically, when dealing with controllers, sensors have to be subsequently connected to a PLC. How to connect input and output parts is the topic of this chapter.
This is a very important part of the story about PLC controllers because it directly influences what can be connected and how it can be connected to controller inputs or outputs. Two terms most frequently mentioned when discussing connections to inputs or outputs are "sinking" and "sourcing". These two concepts are very important in connecting a PLC correctly with external environment. The most brief definition of these two concepts would be:
SINKING = Common GND line (-)
SOURCING = Common VCC line (+)
First thing that catches one's eye are "+" and "-" supply, DC supply. Inputs and outputs which are either sinking or sourcing can conduct electricity only in one direction, so they are only supplied with direct current. According to what we've said thus far, each input or output has its own return line, so 5 inputs would need 10 screw terminals on PLC controller housing. Instead, we use a system of connecting several inputs to one return line as in the following picture. These common lines are usually marked "COMM" on the PLC controller housing.
Explanation of PLC controller input and output lines has up to now been given only theoretically. In order to apply this knowledge, we need to make it a little more specific. Example can be connection of external device such as proximity sensor. Sensor outputs can be different depending on a sensor itself and also on a particular application. Following pictures display some examples of sensor outputs and their connection with a PLC controller. Sensor output actually marks the size of a signal given by a sensor at its output when this sensor is active. In one case this is +V (supply voltage, usually 12 or 24V) and in other case a GND (0V). Another thing worth mentioning is that sinking-sourcing and sourcing - sinking pairing is always used, and not sourcing-sourcing or sinking-sinking pairing.
PLC controller output lines usually can be:
-transistors in PNP connection
-transistors in NPN connection
The following two pictures display a realistic way how a PLC manages external devices. It ought to be noted that a main difference between these two pictures is a position of "output load device". By "output load device" we mean some relay, signalization light or similar.
How something is connected with a PLC output depends on the element being connected. In short, it depends on whether this element of output load device is activated by a positive supply pole or a negative supply pole.
author: Nebojsa Matic
There are two mechanic design types used occasionally for system-sistem PLC : Single box Type , and Type Modular and Rak. Single box type generally applied for small fairish controller of which can be programmed and marketed in the form of inwrought packaging, complete with energy?power allowance, processor, memory, and units input/output. See picture under
Modular type consisted of modules that is separate, his(its each to ration energy?power, processor, other modules, often stuck into at rail lines in a base. Rack Type can be utilized for all controller measure program and has multifarious tidy functional unit for independent modules of which can be stuck into socket-socket at a base is in the form of Rak. See picture under ;
Programs packed into one of memory PLC by using a programming peripheral generally is not jointed permanently to PLC and movable out of one controllers to other controllers without disturbing operations is being implemented. Oparation to PLC , programming peripheral is not necessarily be jointed to PLC because this peripheral will only remove program which we are create to memory PLC.
Supplier PLC : Mitsubishi, Keyence, Omron, Siemens, Atos, Festo, Honeywell, Schneider Electric, Allen Bradley, IDEC, ABB, Rockwell Automation, General Electric, and etc.
Basis of a PLC function is continual scanning of a program. Under scanning we mean running through all conditions within a guaranteed period. Scanning process has three basic steps:
Testing input status. First, a PLC checks each of the inputs with intention to see which one of them has status ON or OFF. In other words, it checks whether a sensor, or a switch etc. connected with an input is activated or not. Information that processor thus obtains through this step is stored in memory in order to be used in the following step.
Program execution. Here a PLC executes a program, instruction by instruction. Based on a program and based on the status of that input as obtained in the preceding step, an appropriate action is taken. This reaction can be defined as activation of a certain output, or results can be put off and stored in memory to be retrieved later in the following step.
Checkup and correction of output status. Finally, a PLC checks up output status and adjusts it as needed. Change is performed based on the input status that had been read during the first step, and based on the results of program execution in step two. Following the execution of step 3 PLC returns to the beginning of this cycle and continually repeats these steps. Scanning time is defined by the time needed to perform these three steps, and sometimes it is an important program feature.
Thursday, November 12, 2009 Labels: Introduction 0 comments
Programmable controllers are generally programmed in ladder diagram (or "relay diagram") which is nothing but a symbolic representation of electric circuits. Symbols were selected that actually looked similar to schematic symbols of electric devices, and this has made it much easier for electricians to switch to programming PLC controllers. Electrician who has never seen a PLC can understand a ladder diagram.
There are several languages designed for user communication with a PLC, among which ladder diagram is the most popular. Ladder diagram consists of one vertical line found on the left hand side, and lines which branch off to the right. Line on the left is called a "bus bar", and lines that branch off to the right are instruction lines. Conditions which lead to instructions positioned at the right edge of a diagram are stored along instruction lines. Logical combination of these conditions determines when and in what way instruction on the right will execute. Basic elements of a relay diagram can be seen in the following picture.
Based on the picture above, one should note that a ladder diagram consists of two basic parts: left section also called conditional, and a right section which has instructions. When a condition is fulfilled, instruction is executed, and that's all!
Right section of a ladder diagram is an instruction which is executed if left condition is fulfilled. There are several types of instructions that could easily be divided into simple and complex. Example of a simple instruction is activation of some bit in memory location. In the example above, this bit has physical connotation because it is connected with a relay inside a PLC controller. When a CPU activates one of the leading four bits 10, relay contacts move and connect lines attached to it. In this case, these are the lines connected to a screw terminal marked as 0 and to one of COM screw terminals.
Normally open and normally closed contacts
Since we frequently meet with concepts "normally open" and "normally closed" in industrial environment, it's important to know them. Both terms apply to words such as contacts, input, output, etc. (all combinations have the same meaning whether we are talking about input, output, contact or something else).
Principle is quite simple, normally open switch won't conduct electricity until it is pressed down, and normally closed switch will conduct electricity until it is pressed. Good examples for both situations are the doorbell and a house alarm.
If a normally closed switch is selected, bell will work continually until someone pushes the switch. By pushing a switch, contacts are opened and the flow of electricity towards the bell is interrupted. Of course, system so designed would not in any case suit the owner of the house. A better choice would certainly be a normally open switch. This way bell wouldn't work until someone pushed the switch button and thus informed of his or her presence at the entrance.
Home alarm system is an example of an application of a normally closed switch. Let's suppose that alarm system is intended for surveillance of the front door to the house. One of the ways to "wire" the house would be to install a normally open switch from each door to the alarm itself (precisely as with a bell switch). Then, if the door was opened, this would close the switch, and an alarm would be activated. This system could work, but there would be some problems with this, too. Let's suppose that switch is not working, that a wire is somehow disconnected, or a switch is broken, etc. (there are many ways in which this system could become dysfunctional). The real trouble is that a homeowner would not know that a system was out of order. A burglar could open the door, a switch would not work, and the alarm would not be activated. Obviously, this isn't a good way to set up this system. System should be set up in such a way so the alarm is activated by a burglar, but also by its own dysfunction, or if any of the components stopped working. (A homeowner would certainly want to know if a system was dysfunctional). Having these things in mind, it is far better to use a switch with normally closed contacts which will detect an unauthorized entrance (opened door interrupts the flow of electricity, and this signal is used to activate a sound signal), or a failure on the system such as a disconnected wire. These considerations are even more important in industrial environment where a failure could cause injury at work. One such example where outputs with normally closed contacts are used is a safety wall with trimming machines. If the wall doors open, switch affects the output with normally closed contacts and interrupts a supply circuit. This stops the machine and prevents an injury.
Concepts normally open and normally closed can apply to sensors as well. Sensors are used to sense the presence of physical objects, measure some dimension or some amount. For instance, one type of sensors can be used to detect presence of a box on an industry transfer belt. Other types can be used to measure physical dimensions such as heat, etc. Still, most sensors are of a switch type. Their output is in status ON or OFF depending on what the sensor "feels". Let's take for instance a sensor made to feel metal when a metal object passes by the sensor. For this purpose, a sensor with a normally open or a normally closed contact at the output could be used. If it were necessary to inform a PLC each time an object passed by the sensor, a sensor with a normally open output should be selected. Sensor output would set off only if a metal object were placed right before the sensor. A sensor would turn off after the object has passed. PLC could then calculate how many times a normally open contact was set off at the sensor output, and would thus know how many metal objects passed by the sensor.
Concepts normally open and normally closed contact ought to be clarified and explained in detail in the example of a PLC controller input and output. The easiest way to explain them is in the example of a relay.
Concepts "normally open" and "normally closed" can also refer to inputs of a PLC controller. Let's use a key as an example of an input to a PLC controller. Input where a key is connected can be defined as an input with open or closed contacts. If it is defined as an input with normally open contact, pushing a key will set off an instruction found after the condition. In this case it will be an activation of a relay 0.
If input is defined as an input with normally closed contact, pushing the key will interrupt instruction found after the condition. In this case, this will cause deactivation of relay 0 (relay is active until the key is pressed). You can see in picture below how keys are connected, and view the relay diagrams in both cases.
When programming with a ladder diagram, logical combination of ON and OFF conditions set before the instruction determines the eventual condition under which the instruction will be, or will not be executed. This condition, which can have only ON or OFF values is called instruction execution condition. Operand assigned to any instruction in a relay diagram can be any bit. This means that conditions in a relay diagram can be determined by a status of I/O bits, operational bits, timers/counters, etc.
author: Nebojsa Matic